WordPress's post galleries output as an HTML Definition List. Each image is a DT element (tag) and the caption is a DD element, which comes after the DT. To change this, you'll want to insert your gallery on the page / post, switch to HTML view, and then edit the gallery shortcode you'll see there.
The reference for this is here, in the WordPress Codex: Gallery Shortcode. Scroll down to the line that reads, "Some advanced options are:"
You can change the tags for each gallery item, the image, and the captions. For example (without the dash and the space next to each square-bracket):
[- gallery itemtag="div" icontag="span" captiontag="p" -]
That would output the gallery as a series of divs, with the image in a span tag and each caption in a paragraph tag. Depending on how you want to design your gallery will determine the correct HTML and then the necessary CSS.
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