Well, I'm kind of biased.
I personally wouldn't ever use Prose since I don't need or want all those design settings on the backend but I would recommend it to someone that wasn't familiar with CSS or PHP since you wouldn't need to get your hands dirty to make simple customizations. And I would always use a Genesis theme over 2010/2011. SEO is built into Genesis so there's no need for more plugins and using Genesis ensures that everything is up to date without me having to go in and do updates myself.
Adsense will work the same in any theme you choose.